Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD is a disease of lung capacity characterised by a progressive limitation of airflow that is preventable and manageable.
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common types of COPD. Other chronic conditions such as asthma, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, respiratory cancers and diabetes may be associated with COPD.
The COPD individuals often experience shortness of breath and coughing.
A spirometer is a tool that measures lung volumes of inspiration and expiration. The main measurements of absolute lung volumes are defined as:
Total lung capacity (TLC): volume in the lungs at maximal inflation
Tidal volume (TV): volume of air moving into or out of the lungs during normal breathing
Residual volume (RV): volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
Forced expiratory volume (FEV1): volume of forced air exhaled in the 1st second
Forced vital capacity (FVC): volume of expiration effort at maximum force
Decreased lung function
Decreased lung function is characterised by a decrease in FEV1 and FVC and an increase in RV. Meaning that the forced air out of the lungs and the maximal force to exhale air out of the lungs is reduced, consequentially leaving an increased volume of air in the lungs even after a maximal effort of exhalation.
Jaxson Wearing, Sheridan Beaumont, Danielle Forbes, Benjamin Brown, and Roger Engel (2016) performed a systematic review on the effect of spinal manipulative therapy in the management COPD. The six studies that met the inclusion criteria of involving spinal manipulative therapy with or without other forms of manual therapy, exercise, and/or pharmacologic interventions were reviewed.
Wearing, et al. (2016) reported and provided preliminary evidence of improved lung function and exercise capacity following a combination of spinal manipulative therapy and exercise to individuals with COPD.
Wearing, J., Beaumont, S., Forbes, D., Brown, B., and Engel, R. (2016). The use of spinal manipulative therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review. The journal of alternative and commentary medicine; 22(2), 108-114.